Contingencia: la CDMX enfrenta el “feedback loops” conoce más de qué se trata este fenómeno

Este 15 de mayo, la Comisión Ambiental de la Megalópolis (CAMe) informó que se activó la contingencia ambiental extraordinaria en la Ciudad de México por partículas suspendidas PM 2.5.  En un comunicado, detalló que a las 5:00 horas de este día, se registraron 158 puntos de este contaminante en la estación Nezahualcóyotl, perteneciente al municipio del Estado de México. Sin embargo, más allá de tecnicismos, ¿qué es lo que enfrentan hoy los habitantes de la CDMX con contingencia y contaminación? ¿Qué se puede hacer y por qué es importante este problema?

Walking Around entrevistó el maestrante Francisco Montaño, egresado de la UNAM y quien cursa sus estudios de posgrado en la Lund University, una de las universidades suecas más prestigiosas a nivel mundial en temas de desarrollo ambiental.  El experto ha iniciado explicando que éste problema de la contaminación y la contingencia no es exclusivo de la Ciudad. “Es un problema significativo a nivel mundial y nacional, por ejemplo, muchos municipios han declarado emergencia por incendios y sequías”.

Este fenómeno es explicado a través del concepto de feedback loops. “Básicamente son ciclos de retroalimentación que se basan o están pensados como una forma que los ecosistemas tienen de replicar el procesamiento de energía que se fomenta en ellos.  Esto puede empezar como un incremento de la temperatura, principalmente derivado de factores a nivel mundial, nacional, emisiones de carbono, contaminantes, etcétera, los cuales producen ecosistemas más secos y cae menor cantidad de agua en el suelo.”

Lo anterior deriva en que es más difícil que haya lluvias, pues cuando un ecosistema tiene árboles éstos tienen capacidad no solo de mantener agua en el suelo sino también atraer nubes y fomentar que haya precipitaciones . “Es triste reconocer que este fenómeno se seguirá repitiendo e irá aumentando”. Y es que los incendios consumen árboles que no crecerán de un año para otro y en esa medida hay muchas emisiones de carbono generadas por los incendios, que a su vez incrementan la temperatura a nivel mundial.

El experto advierte que aunque eso no se puede ver de manera obvia, se refleja en que ya no hay agua en los suelos, no hay lluvias y hay más sequías, la calidad del suelo se deteriora. “Para esto ya no es necesaria la intervención humana, aunque hagamos todo por dejar de contaminar, el tema es que los ciclos naturales del clima hacen que estos problemas se repliquen más frecuentemente.”

Lo que pasa en la CdMx es grave, pues hay pocos antecedentes de 11 incendios registrados en la CdMx en un solo día. Y además por causas naturales.  “Se debe reconocer que la Ciudad tiene un plan, que es el de contingencia ambiental, pero el tema es que ese plan está diseñado para ser implementado de manera esporádica. Por ejemplo, Sheinbaum mencionó que la contingencia no se había activado porque el plan no está diseñado para partículas 2.5 sino para partículas 10. Y la calidad del aire no había rebasado los 150 puntos requeridos para declarar.”

Es decir, hay un plan, pero no está diseñado para ser implementado de manera permanente y menos hacer que la ciudad, sus habitantes y las compañías con sus factores contaminantes que tienen un impacto significativo de manera negativa en el ambiente cambien sus actividades. “La culpa no es de un agente en particular, es común que en esta temporada haya niveles altos de contaminación, lo preocupante es que a pesar de ello no se toman medidas permanentes, porque se piensa que es un tema de verano y se dañan intereses políticos  de grupos de poder como empresarios, sindicatos de transporte. Y por X o Y (sic) no hay un plan permanente.”

El experto recomienda las siguientes pequeñas, pero importantes acciones para que colabores:

  • Desincentivar el uso del auto (usarlo menor) y disminuir la actividad de las empresas contaminantes
  • Caminar más
  • Mejorar la calidad del transporte público
  • Construir áreas públicas verdes
  • Parar con la gentrificación y desarrollos inmobiliarios
  • Darle a las comunidades el derecho del uso del bosque, fortalecer los ecosistemas, como Xochimilco que son esquemas de producción alimentaria antiguas, culturalmente valiosos y con un grado alto de sustentabilidad
  • Devolverle autonomía y capacidad de operar sin que tengan que intervenir en las especies de los ecosistemas

“Si los gobiernos no quieren dañar ciertos intereses con la existencia de un plan permanente de sustentabilidad, el costo de no hacerlo es gravísimo. Si a eso le sumas el problema de suministro de agua y sequía, en unos años la CDMX se volverá inevitable. “

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