La distancia que separa a las mujeres de la ciencia y la tecnología

En los últimos años, numerosos estudios han analizado la existencia, alcance y causas de la brecha de género en ciencia y tecnología y la discriminación por género en la comunicada científica y académica. Hay menos investigadoras que publican menos, obtienen menos financiación y progresan menos en su carrera.

Diana Marenco, profesora de la Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales de la UNAM, resalta que esto significa un verdadero problema pues aunque no se reconozca, “las mujeres son el 28% de los investigadores del mundo”, citando datos de la UNESCO. Los números, en su opinión, pueden engañar si miramos carreras de dominio femenino como Biología, Farmacia y Medicina, cuando “el problema está en Física, Matemáticas y las ingenierías”.

Como Diana, miles de científicas (de las ciencias sociales y exactas),  que forman parte de una sociedad machista, demandan la inclusión de la mujer en la ciencia; aunque para ello es necesario erradicar convenciones sociales negativas y prejuicios sobre la participación de las mujeres este ramo.

“Un reto importante por vencer, al ser mujer en el ámbito de mi desarrollo, es el prejuicio, ya sea chauvinista o machista, de que la toma de decisiones o los juicios éticos que yo emita pueden estar influenciados por mis emociones —explica Elizabeth Téllez, investigadora posdoctoral del Programa Universitario de Bioética de la UNAM—, cuando, en realidad, las mujeres somos tan capaces como cualquiera de realizar juicios éticos y evaluaciones daño-beneficio que estén respaldados en argumentos científicos y humanísticos”.

En México, para 1984, las mujeres representaban sólo 18.1% de los miembros del Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI). Para 2016, fueron casi 37% del total. Asimismo, en 2012, nuestro país ocupaba la posición 84 entre 135 países inscritos en el Índice Global de Brecha de Género del Foro Económico Mundial; sin embargo, en el reporte de 2015, se posicionó en el lugar 58, entre un total de 124 países.

Otras situaciones que pueden alejar a las mujeres de la investigación científica son el acoso sexual, las agresiones y la violencia. La inclusión ayudará a tener una sociedad más equitativa y con mejores oportunidades para todos.

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